Adjumani was formed on May 17 1997 from then East Moyo County of Moyo district.
It is bordered by Sudan to the north, Moyo and Arua to the west, and Gulu to the south. Adjumani covers 3,128 sq. km, of which 46.8 km2 is water.
According to the preliminary results of 2002 population census, Adjumani has a population of close to 200,000 people, out of which 95,773 are males and 103,387 are females.
The district has a large Madi-speaking community that makes up 55.2 percent of the population. The other groups include Lugbara, Acholi, Kuku, Zande, Bor, Madi and Acholi.
The district has the largest population of refugees in Uganda totaling 78,668 or 36.4 percent of the resident population. Adjumani is one of the newly established districts in Uganda and therefore suffers from inadequate provision of social services.
Adjumani experiences a tropical climate with a bi-modal rainfall pattern varying between 750mm and 1,500mm on average per month. The rainfall season falls mainly in April and June and between August and November.
Adjumani also has an airfield, but mostly murram roads traverse it with only a kilometre of tarmac road in the town council. In terms of energy sources, the district is served by thermal electricity limited to the town council. Other sources of electricity include individual generator units and solar panels operated by non Governmental organizations (NGOs) and other persons in the district.
Adjumani district has a total of 80 primary schools of which 53 are government-aided and 27 are private-owned. There are two government secondary schools and 14 privately owned secondary schools.
About 90 percent of the government schools have permanent structures while some are currently receiving construction assistance through the school facility grants (SFG).
The district is characterized by early drop out of children due to cultural beliefs that boys and girls can begin families at an early age, and there is a high level of illiteracy among the adult population.
There are 34 health facilities in the district including Public Health Centres units (HC I).
There is one hospital, four grade III health centres and two grade II health centres. The average distance from the nearest health unit is 3.8 km
People in Adjumani district practice mixed farming. The farm holdings vary from 0.06 acres and above. Many of the farmlands are borrowed from friends and relatives and ownership is normally communally vested in the clans. There is limited commercial farming.
Being close to the Sudan border makes the district a potential transit point to the neighbouring country hence providing market for agricultural commodities. This could in turn lead to development of inter-district trade.
Author: Sandra Nans